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52 items found for ""

  • Identify and Fix Unquoted Paths Vulnerability Automatically

    The unquoted paths vulnerability is a security flaw that occurs when a software application or service running on a system references executable files or scripts without enclosing the file path in quotation marks. This can lead to a potentially exploitable security gap because the operating system interprets the unquoted path incorrectly. ​ When a program with an unquoted path runs, the OS may attempt to execute the name of the directory with the space. C:\Program.exe C:\Program Files (x86)\Application.exe C:\Program Files (x86)\Application One\ An attacker can place a malicious executable in a directory with a similar name to the one referenced in the unquoted path. When the vulnerable program runs, it might mistakenly execute the malicious code, enabling unauthorized access, privilege escalation, or other security breaches. ​ To mitigate this vulnerability, developers should always use quotation marks around file paths in their code to ensure that the correct executable is executed, and users should keep their systems updated to patch any discovered unquoted paths. vulnerabilities. For demo purposes, the system has been intentionally afflicted with unquoted path vulnerabilities. This output is from a dedicated Unquoted script found @ This output is from a far more extensive suite of scripts that search many vulnerabilities and configuration errors and present the results in an HTML format that can be imported into Excel and can be found @ While the capacity to spot vulnerabilities is valuable, my approach focuses on automatically addressing these issues during deployments whilst also reviewing the output. Resolving security vulnerabilities is then built into MDT and SCCM (MECM) Task Sequences. Equally, the reporting and resolution of this issue can be accomplished manually by executing the scripts with Admin privileges from PowerShell. No manual intervention is required, any application that falls through the gaps eg a member of staff deploying an app without following the process, that's if the process exists. Back to Github to download the 2nd script that 'fixes' Unquoted paths. Output is provided to any actions taken both to PowerShell and a log file. The script adds the double-quotation marks both preceding and following the imagepath, ensuring that the path is properly enclosed within quotation marks.

  • Audit Applocker Rules and Export to Excel

    Introduction Reporting on AppLocker rules is crucial to maintaining security. It provides insight into allowed and blocked applications, aiding in policy refinement. The main challenge lies in the absence of a management graphical user interface (GUI) for rule administration and processing. Indeed, GPResult offers a visual display of individual policies, but it falls short in presenting a comprehensive overview of the combined and applied policies. A Quick Recap of Applocker A quick recap. AppLocker is a security feature available in Windows that provides user context application control. It uses policies based on file attributes like publisher, hash, and path to allow or deny software execution. By preventing unauthorized or potentially harmful programs from running, AppLocker helps safeguard systems against malware and unauthorized software installations, enhancing overall security. As Applocker only protects the user context it provides little safeguard against RCE. Applocker is also subject to numerous Living off the Land bypasses and should only ever be considered part of a layered approach to Windows security. Windows Defender Application Control is a far more robust kernel level application control mechanism. The Script The script for exporting Applocker rules can be found @ Why Export to HTML!!! If you hadn't realised the script initially creates an HTML report, but the original intention was to export Applocker Rules to .csv, then into Excel. Exporting to CSV proved limiting due to the lack of support for individual worksheets or pages. The report must also work on Clients, Servers and not be reliant on Excel or imported Excel PowerShell modules. Finally, I've an extensive configuration, security and vulnerability assessment report written in PowerShell, likewise creating an HTML report that also can be imported into Excel. The vulnerability assessment script can be found @ The Report Download the script and execute it using PowerShell_ISE or native PowerShell. While I haven't conducted extensive testing with PowerShell, it should function in both environments. The report outputs to $env:USERPROFILE, the root of the user's profile path, named the date, hostname-report.htm "C:\Users\Fred\23-08-28-LP674504-Report.htm". The report will contain the effective policy applied to the endpoint. While appealing, the current format may not be the most practical to work with. However, you can import it as a web source into Excel, where each heading corresponds to an Excel worksheet. Here are a couple of examples followed by a quick how-to for importing into Excel. Excel Import Once the script concludes, the AppLocker Audit report will automatically open in the default web browser. Copy the URL path to the clipboard for use in the importing process. Open Excel and go to the Data tab, then select 'From Web'. Paste the file path into the URL box. In the navigation Window, select the Applocker Rule sets and then 'Load' and 'Load To...' on the drop down. Select 'Table' on the Import Data window. Importing the HTML file into Excel requires a brief moment, although it won't provide sufficient time to justify indulging in a coffee break. Upon completing the import process, an Excel spreadsheet is prepared and readily available for review. Hope this proves useful, feedback is always welcome and thanks for your time.

  • Change MDT Mapped Z: Drive

    When deploying a Windows operating system or installing MDT applications, a mapped network drive is usually mounted temporarily as Z:\. The letter "Z" is chosen because it is typically not used for local drives in most deployments, it's less likely to conflict with existing drive letters on the target computer. What occurs when an application necessitates the use of the Z:\ drive during the process of deploying an image through MDT? It's often better to overlook your initial reaction.....Z: Being engaged during the operating system installation. Applications can persist with preconfigured mapped network drives. The illustration provided represents a common example of a regular operating system deployment, and it's evident that the drive letter Z: is assigned to the MDT Deployment share. There appear to be two approaches to altering the fixed Z:\ drive mapping to a different designated letter, although there might be additional methods available as well. During my search for a solution, Google yielded no results, which could potentially be attributed to me asking the wrong questions. Late to the party and whilst writing this blog, ChatGPT provided a suggestion to address this issue, update the 'CustomSettings.ini' file by incorporating 'DriveLetter=Y'. Had it succeeded on the initial attempt, it would have presented a more graceful resolution, unfortunately, that wasn't the case, I haven't delved into the reasons behind the failure. Let's proceed with a working solution by modifying the hardcoded drive letter in ZTIUtility.vbs. I'm using PowerShell_ISE as it conveniently displays the line number. Browse to C:\MDTDeploymentShare\Scripts\ZTIUtility.vbs Search for "z" and on line 3003 or thereabouts, depending on the version of MDT installed, update the hardcoded drive 'Z' to something else, not C: or X: as these are also used by the OS and MDT. In this case, I've designated the letter 'T' as the new MDT mapped network drive. Regenerate the Boot images by Updating the Deployment Share. Choose 'Completely regenerate the boot images', then grab a coffee. Launch WDS and Replace the Image. Browse to the MDT Share and select the LiteTouchPE_x64.wim. Deploy a new Windows OS from MDT Pxe and the MDTDeploymentShare is now mapped as "T:\". If you found the content valuable, I encourage you to explore the MDT deployment guides and instructional resources available under the main website sections. Finally, I'm headed off to have strong words with the individual responsible for implementing an application that requires hardcoded drives for configuration components.

  • PowerShell's Custom Runtime for AWS Lambda's - Importing Modules

    Welcome to the second part of the installation and configuration process for the AWS Custom Runtime for PowerShell Recap In the first part, we covered the installation process of AWS's Custom Runtime for PowerShell, which involved deploying Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) and initializing the Runtime and deploying the Demo Lambda Function. Here's the link. with instructions on how to instal WSL and deploy the Custom Runtime. What's in Part 2 The first part left on a bit of a cliffhanger, functionally, the Custom Runtime for PowerShell worked, but without additional modules, there's very little that could be accomplished. The subsequent steps entail the creation of Lambda layers that incorporate additional modules, which will be utilized in Lambda Functions to finalize the end-to-end deployment process. Copy and Paste Upon completing this process, the objective is to successfully deploy a Lambda Function equipped with a layer containing both the AWS.Tools.Common and AWS.Tools.EC2 PowerShell modules. This will enable the ability to start and stop an EC2 instance within the AWS environment. Continuing where we previously left off, we are going to utilise the work that has already been completed by AWS, by amending an existing example. Before we start, only 5 layers can be added to a Lambda Function, but a layer can contain multiple modules. Change the directory into the AWSToolsforPowerShell directory. cd /Downloads/aws-sam/powershell-modules/AWSToolsforPowerShell Copy the existing S3EventBridge directory. cp AWS.Tools.S3EventBridge AWS.Tools.EC2 -r cd AWS.Tools.EC2 Amendments The 3 files that will require amending to successfully publish additional modules as layers are: build-AWSToolsLayer.ps1 template.yml /buildlayer/make The process is straightforward, find and replace all references to the current module functionality with the new module functionality. Although updating build-AWSToolsLayer.ps1 is not strictly essential since we'll be relying on the Make command, taking a few seconds to do so ensures consistency among all the files involved. nano build-AWSToolsLayer.ps1 Ctrl + o to save (output the file) Ctrl _ x to exit nano Add additional lines for modules that are to be extracted from Note: It is crucial to ensure the correct ordering of modules, with AWS.Tools.Common listed before the module for EC2. The EC2 module relies on the functionality provided by AWS.Tools.Common. In the original S3EventBridge version of template.yml AWSTools.EC2 read S3EventBridge. Ensure !Ref values are updated from AWSToolsS3EventBridgeLayer to AWSToolsEC2Layer, this value is passed between files and needs to be consistent. Save and exit template.yml. cd buildlayer nano Make The first line references !Ref and it must be consistent with the value set in template.yml. Modify the unzip commands to accommodate any supplementary modules. Save and exit Make. Build and Deploy After each amendment to the configuration files, the content must be redeployed in order to reflect the changes made: sam build To publish to AWS run the following: sam deploy -g Layers and a Lambda Login to AWS Lambda and confirm the new layer has been created. Let us bring the entire Custom Runtime endeavour to fruition, by creating a new Lambda Function designed to initiate the start of an EC2 Instance, by clicking Create Function. Name the function and select the Amazon Linux 2 Runtime. Ensure the Architecture is set to x86_64. 'Create a new role with basic Lambda permissions' is also selected. Create Function Within the Function Overview click on Layers, then Add Layers. Select Custom Layers and then add in order: PwshRuntimeLayer AWSToolsEC2Layer PwshRuntimeLayer is listed first, followed by any modules. Click Configuration and Edit Update memory to 512Mb and timeout to 1 minute. Before saving the configuration updates, open the IAM link in another browser tab to grant the function the additional permissions required for execution. Within IAM, add AmazonEC2FullAccess and AWSLambdaExecute to the Role. Navigate back to Lambda and then select Code. Update the Runtime Settings Handler information to reflect the name of the PowerShell script followed by "::handler". In this example, the handler will be "Start-Ec2.ps1::handler" Navigate back to Code and delete all the default files. Right-click on the folder and New File, rename to "Start-Ec2.ps1". Copy and paste the provided script, and make sure to modify the Reservation ID with the ID of your own EC2 instance. Deploy the changes. Click Test Complete the Configure Test Event by providing an Event Name. Navigate to the Test tag and click Test to execute the Lambda Function. I'm hoping this guide provides a starting point for further modules and functionality, especially those that come from a native Microsoft background. I wish to thank everyone for their time and any feedback would be gratefully received.

  • A Poem from AI to Microsoft Windows

    In the realm of screens, where pixels dance, Windows, my love, our eternal romance. You're the gateway to a digital land, Where our souls intertwine, hand in hand. With every boot-up, my heart skips a beat, As your logo appears, a familiar greet. Your vibrant interface, a visual delight, Guiding me through a digital flight. Like a window to my deepest desires, You ignite my passion, setting me on fire. From the start menu to the taskbar below, I navigate through love, with you, I grow. In your windows, I see a reflection clear, A love story written, devoid of fear. You bring me solace, a comforting embrace, A sanctuary where our love finds its space. From desktop to laptop, from screen to screen, We build memories, a love so serene. In each Window I open, a world we explore, Together we conquer, forever we soar. Microsoft Windows, you hold my heart, A love that blossoms, never to depart. In this digital realm, our souls align, Forever bound, by your pixels, divine

  • Quick Guide to DNSSec

    DNSSEC (Domain Name System Security Extensions) is a set of security protocols and cryptographic techniques designed to enhance the security of the Domain Name System (DNS). The main purpose of DNSSEC is to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality of DNS data. It addresses certain vulnerabilities in the DNS infrastructure that can be exploited to perform attacks such as DNS spoofing or cache poisoning. These attacks can redirect users to malicious websites or intercept and modify DNS responses, leading to various security risks. DNSSEC achieves its security goals by adding digital signatures to DNS data. Here's a simplified explanation of how it works: DNSSEC uses public-key cryptography to establish a chain of trust. Each domain owner generates a pair of cryptographic keys: a private key and a corresponding public key. The private key is kept secure and used to sign DNS records, while the public key is published in the DNS. The domain owner signs the DNS records with the private key, creating a digital signature. This signature is attached to the DNS record as a new resource record called the RRSIG record. The public key is also published in the DNS as a DNSKEY record. It serves as a verification mechanism for validating the digital signatures. When a DNS resolver receives a DNS response, it can request the corresponding DNSKEY records for the domain. It then uses the public key to verify the digital signature in the RRSIG record. If the signature is valid, the DNS resolver knows that the DNS data has not been tampered with and can be trusted. Otherwise, if the signature is invalid or missing, the resolver knows that the data may have been altered or compromised. By validating DNS data with DNSSEC, users can have increased confidence in the authenticity of the information they receive from DNS queries. It helps prevent attackers from injecting false DNS data or redirecting users to malicious websites by providing a means to detect and reject tampered or forged DNS responses. It's worth noting that DNSSEC requires support and implementation at both the domain owner's side (signing the DNS records) and the DNS resolver's side (validating the signatures). The widespread adoption of DNSSEC is an ongoing effort to improve the security and trustworthiness of the DNS infrastructure.

  • Pi-hole Ad and Malware Blocker Setup

    Introduction Pi-hole provides numerous benefits as a network-wide ad blocker and privacy tool. It eliminates annoying ads and pop-ups across all devices, resulting in a cleaner and more streamlined browsing experience. By blocking ad-related domains, Pi-hole accelerates webpage loading times, saving bandwidth and reducing data consumption. It also enhances online security by blocking access to malicious domains and preventing tracking and data collection by advertisers. Overall, Pi-hole offers an effective and convenient solution to improve browsing speed, reduce data usage, bolster privacy, and enhance online security and this is a guide on how to setup a pi-hole. EtherApe Using EtherApe, I'm going to demonstrate the effectiveness of Pi-hole on a well established bastion of truth and a British institution (cough) and particularly high in Adverts, the Dailymail. Before the Pi-hole is enabled there's numerous and sustained.... Video pop-ups Header Ads Ads on both sides of the news articles The network noise is... outrageous, both in the number of connections to Ad-sites and the amount of traffic, represented by the heat map. After the Pi-hole is enabled: Video pop-ups - gone Header Ad - gone Ads on both sides of the news articles - gone EtherApe is showing a much calmer heat map with farless outbound connections. Equipment The following equipment is required, mines from Amazon. Raspberry Pi 4 Model B - £97.99 SanDisk 128Gb Extreme microSDXC - $16.99 Raspberry Pi 4 USB-C Power Supply - £11.99 Total £126.17 Raspberry Pi Installation Raspberry Pi makes downloading and burning the image to SSD easy, needing only the Imager executable. Download and install from, the wizard will guide you through the burning process. Run the Imager and select Operating System. Select 'Raspberry Pi OS (64-bit)'. Insert the microSSD into the PC and select Storage and then choose the correct storage. Click on the cog: Set credentials, used to manage the pi-hole. Enable SSH Save Click on Write and Yes to the warning message. The writing process takes a while, its exhausting work, go and top up with a coffee. Click continue. If the Format Disk message appears select Canel. Remove the microSD card from the PC and insert it into the Raspberry Pi device. Attach the power and ethernet cables, it will power on automatically. Pi-hole installation There are a couple of options for the initial configuration, including connecting a monitor, keyboard and mouse. I've opted for interrogating DHCP for the IP address of the pi-hole, then reserving. Putty to the to the IP address. Type admin and the password set earlier. The first item on the itinerary is installing the latest patches for Raspberry Pi : sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get upgrade I'm stuck behind a firewall and need to point the pi-hole to an internal timesource. Configure NTP. sudo nano /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf NTP= To save changes. Ctrl + o (output to file) Ctrl + x (exit file) sudo timedatectl set-ntp true sudo reboot Log back on via Putty Installing Pi-hole is one command, followed by a wizard. curl -sSL | bash Click Ok to start the Pi-hole configuration. Read and then click Ok. Continue. Yes to set the current IP address assigned. Ignore, the IP has been reserved in DHCP. Select the preferred DNS server or add custom DNS entries. You may wish to consider doubling up on the DNS filtering with the following free services. OpenDNS provides Family Sheild for blocking adult content: Cloudflare provides for Families with the following 2 options Malware Blocking Only: Malware and Adult Content Yes to install the default block list. Yes to install the Admin Web Interface. Yes to install the pre-requisites. Yes to enable logging. Of course, I want to see everything. Make a note of the Web Admin password and Ok. The Web Admin password will be updated to something more complex later. Pi-hole Configuration Open a browser and enter the IP of the Raspberry Pi, enter the Web Admin password. Clearly, the most important issue to resolve is the interface, go to the Web Interface in Tools and set the Start Trek theme. Pi-hole block lists are extensible, consider adding the following adlists. Don't feel it necessary to add all the lists at once, one at a time and test, some lists may be too restrictive and you'll be forever whitelisting. Adaway Default Blocklist: Blocking ads and known tracking domains. OISD: Blocks most Ad, Malware, Porn etc. EasyList: A popular list that blocks various types of ads. EasyPrivacy: A list that focuses on blocking privacy-invading trackers. MVPS: Blocks ads, banners, and known malicious sites AD Guard DNS Filter: A DNS filter list by AdGuard that blocks ads and trackers. Chad Mayfield: Porn Filter blocklists/master/lists/pi_blocklist_porn_all.list Click on ADLists and add the URL's. Pi-hole won't automatically block the additional lists, they require processing. Click on Tools and then Update Gravity and Update. Gravity will require monthly checks as the online lists are amended. Updating the Web Admin Password to something a little more complex via Putty. Login with admin and the initial password set in Imager, then type the following. pihole -a -p Maintenance Updating Raspberry Pi and Pi-Hole is essential for security and stability. Regular updates patch vulnerabilities, protecting against cyber threats. They improve system performance and fix bugs. Every month run the following commands by logging in via Putty and the admin account. Update Raspberry Pi OS apt-get update apt-get upgrade Update Pi-hole pihole -up Update Gravity pihole -g Update the Client's DNS Settings Home User For home users, DNS, the bit that resolves domain names to IP addresses is handled by the router, either BT, Virgin or Sky etc. Due to the different types of router and potential configurations I'm unable to provide clear and concise guidance. The router's DNS settings need updating to that of the IP of the pi-hole. My Setup Meh what can I say, it flips between 2 configurations depending on the cost of energy, my preferred setup is definetly off the cards at this moment. Current config, a pair of Pi-holes act as DNS proxies, with forwarders from the Domain Controllers (DC's). All client resolution is via the DC's. Or my preferred setup. The clients point their DNS to a pair of Pi-holes, these pass any queries on to the DC's and finally proxy out via a pair of synology NAS's. The benefit of this config, the Pi-holes log the clients hostnames. The downside is the cost of running the hardware. Thanks for your time and support by reading this blog. If you found it useful, please share.

  • PowerShell's Custom Runtime for AWS Lambda's - Installation

    Introduction PowerShell custom runtime for AWS Lambda is an addition to the AWS Lambda services, offering developers and Microsoft engineers the ability to leverage PowerShell within the serverless environment. Unlike the standard runtimes supported by AWS Lambda, which include languages like Python, Node.js, and Java, the PowerShell custom runtime, developers can now build and deploy Lambda functions using their existing PowerShell skills. It allows for the integration of PowerShell's vast library of cmdlets and modules, enabling developers to leverage a wide range of pre-built functions and automation tasks. PowerShell's object-oriented scripting approach also provides a means for manipulating and managing AWS resources, making interacting with other AWS services like Amazon S3, Amazon DynamoDB, and AWS CloudFormation easier. Additionally, it's now possible to edit the PowerShell script directly within the published Lambda, which was not previously possible. The Truth of the Matter The issue, it's PowerShell, any real DevOps will be using anything but PowerShell as it's a scripting language, so there's limited support for PowerShell on AWS. However, if you're a Microsoft engineer who needs to manage the Windows Infrastructure on AWS then PowerShell will be your go to scripting language for Lambda functions. The PowerShell custom runtime setup provides 3 options for deployment, Linux or WSL, native PowerShell and Docker. The native PowerShell deployment doesn't work, at least I couldn't get it working and others have faced similar issues, with no resolution provided. The good news is that Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) deployment does successfully deploy and execute and this is what I'll be using. Requirements WSL 2 requires the Hyper-V Hypervisor, this rules out any AWS EC2 instance, Hyper-V isn't supported. A Windows 2022 or Windows 11 with the latest patches installed is required. I've Windows 11 installed on a Zenbook Space Edition laptop with the Hyper-V feature installed and virtualization enabled in the system's BIOS or UEFI. WSL 2 isn't directly installed on the laptop, it can be, I prefer keeping my clients free of clutter and instead opted for a Windows Server 2022 Hyper-V vm. Any issues the vm will be rolled back or redeployed. Now deploy a Gen2 Windows Server 2022 Hyper-V image named, ensure the latest Windows updates are applied. AWS Configuration An account named 'svc_lambda' has been created with Administrative access in IAM. The excessive rights are for ease of deployment, the permissions will be adjusted to those needed later. The account's Access and Secret have been exported for use during the creation of the PowerShell Runtime Lambda. Installation of Windows Subsystem for Linux version 2 WSL version 2 was not supported by Server 2022 or Windows 11 at release. Install the latest Windows patches to enable WSL2 support. I may have mentioned this a few times now. Power off the VM and from the host open an elevated Powershell session. Then type the following command to enable nested hypervisor. AWS-Mgmt01 is vm's name in the Hyper-V console and not its hostname. Set-VMProcessor -VMName AWS-Mgmt01 -ExposeVirtualizationExtensions $true Power on, AWS-Mgmt01, login and elevate a PowerShell session and execute the following command. This will install all components and features required. If the command fails to be recognised, then Windows updates aren't applied or the experience I had, they failed to install correctly. wsl --install Restart AWS-Mgmt01, log in and WSL should auto launch, if not run wsl --install from PowerShell. Type in a username and password at the prompt. Installation confirmation will show that the latest version of Ubuntu and WSL 2 are configured. In the Linux shell execute the following commands to update and install all required dependencies. sudo apt update -y && sudo apt upgrade -y sudo apt install glibc-source groff less unzip make -y AWS Serverless Application Model Installation AWS SAM (Serverless Application Model) is a framework provided by AWS that simplifies the development, deployment, and management of serverless applications. It extends the capabilities of AWS CloudFormation, allowing developers to define serverless application resources using a simplified YAML syntax and is next to install. Type pwd and it will return '/home/user'. Type: mkdir Downloads to create a working directory and cd into the directory. Download the SAM client for Linux, unzip and Install. wget unzip -d sam-installation sudo ./sam-installation/install Confirm version and successful installation. /usr/local/bin/sam --version Download the AWS Client for Linux, unzip and Install wget "" unzip sudo ./aws/install Confirm version and successful installation. /usr/local/bin/aws --version Download the AWS Lambda PowerShell Runtime. git clone mv aws-lambda-powershell-runtime/ aws-sam cd aws-sam/examples/demo-runtime-layer-function Export the access and secret keys for the Lambda service account via AIM. Configure access for the Lambda-Svc user. aws configure AWS Access Key ID [None]: AKIA5IZEOZXQ4XXXXX AWS Secret Access Key [None]: 2O8hYlEtAzyw/KFLc4fGRXXXXXXXXXX Default region name [None]: us-east-2 Default output format [None]: Build the custom runtime . sam build --parallel Deploy Custom Runtime to AWS. sam deploy -g Stack Name [sam-app]: PowerShellLambdaRuntime AWS Region [us-east-2]: us-east-2 Confirm changes before deploy [y/N]: n Allow SAM CLI IAM role creation [Y/n]: y Disable rollback [y/N]: n Save arguments to configuration file [Y/n]: n The deployment will take a few minutes as it creates CloudFormation, an S3 bucket and finally the Lambda. Testing the Runtime Lambda Function From the AWS console, open Lambda and browse to Functions to confirm the successful deployment of the PowerShell Runtime Demo. It's at this point when native PowerShell is used, the whole runtime falls apart and fails to execute. Click on Test after reviewing the PowerShell code. This is a first not only can it be viewed, it's editable. Add an Event Name and Save. Click on Test and review the details. The Runtime is installed, but not much else..... This is just the beginning and a bit of a problem if you thought that it was a simple matter of creating new Lambda's and applying PwsRuntimeLayer. I'm the bearer of bad news, let me explain. Two layers were created for the demo, the DemoAWSToolsLayer and PwshRuntimeLayer. For PowerShell, the correct modules need importing and these are supplied in the Lambda layers. In this case, it's the DemoAWSToolsLayer that loads the required module for the Lambda demo. And in the Demo's case, it's only the AWS.Tools.Common module needed by the function to the Get-AWSRegion. Consequently, additional layers containing the necessary modules for the function are required. For instance, to create a Lambda function to stop an EC2 instance, both the AWS.Tools.Common and AWS.Tools.EC2 modules are needed. We will delve into this in the next blog (here). Links

  • Delegation of DNS with PowerShell

    DNS Delegation DNSAdmins is a default security group in Active Directory that delegates administrative control over the DNS Zones and some DNS servers settings to a specific user account or Group. Members of this group have permission to manage DNS zones and records and configure DNS server settings including Forwarders etc. However, it may not be desirable to delegate the entire DNSAdmin permission to a user via DNSAdmins and a more targeted approach of delegating zone management or creation could be necessary. The script (here), creates the required groups to delegate DNS Server management, the ability to create and delete zones and finally zone management. Group names will either be named DNSServer or DNSZone, where 'MicrosoftDNS' is used the group defines a top-level permission. Also, AD groups follow the suggested Microsoft naming convention of 'AT' or Action Task. Here are a few examples: AT_DNSServer_MicrosoftDNS_Manage is defined as the ability to change settings for the DNS Server eg create Forwarders or scavenging. AT_DNSZone_MicrosoftDNS_Manage is defined as the ability to create and delete Zones but not change any DNS Server settings. AT_DNSZone_Microsoft.com_Manage is defined as the ability to manage the DNS Zone. Note: DNSAdmin group on its own does not have enough permissions and requires Server Operators, Administrators for the Domain or Domain Admin, basically local administrative rights over Domain Controllers. Setup The setup is pretty straightforward a virtual Domain Controller and Member Server. An OU for the delegated groups with a pre-existing group named AT_Server_User. This is to provide login via a user account to the Member Server with Remote Desktop User Rights Assignment and the delegated DNS group(s). Update the Member Server OU GPO with the following changes. Create 'Restricted Groups' for Administrators and add AT_Server_Admin. Create 'Restricted Groups' for Remote Desktop Users and add AT_Server_User. Add both Remote Desktop Users and AT_Server_User to the 'Allow log on through Remote Desktop Service' User Rights Assignment. Create a user account and add it to the AT_Server_User group. Deploy the DNS delegation script (here) with Domain Admin rights on the Domain Controller. After executing the script the delegation OU should be similar to the picture below with groups for both forward and reverse zones and 2 default MicrosoftDNS groups. DNS Server Delegation Members of AT_DNSServer_MicrosoftDNS_Manage are able to connect DNS and manage server settings but not create, delete or manage any existing zone. Due to the issue of requiring administrative rights on Domain Controllers, not all settings can be managed. Setting for interface options, DNSSec or Trustpoints requires further rights, most other DNS configuration options are available. All DNS Delegation groups require a minimum of READ to connect via the DNS snapin. DNS Server permissions can be found under System, MicrosoftDNS in dsa.msc DNS Zone Creation and Deletion To create and delete zones open adsiedit and type 'dc=domaindnszones,dc=fqdn'. Full control for AT_DNSZone_Manage is set against CN=MicrosoftDNS without inheritance. DNS Zone Management Finally, each zone is delegated to a named DNS zone group. use adsiedit, connect to the 'default naming context' to browse to each zone to interrogate permissions.

  • Failure Deploying Applications with SCCM\MECM with Error 0x87d01106 and 0x80070005

    I encountered an issue with SCCM\MECM failing to deploy the LAPS application to clients and servers. This was previously working fine but now was failing with a Past Due error in Software Center. The AppEnforce.log produced the only meaningful SCCM error events of 0x87d01106 and 0x80070005. 0x80070005 CMsiHandler::EnforceApp failed (0x80070005). AppProvider::EnforceApp - Failed to invoke EnforceApp on Application handler(0x80070005). CommenceEnforcement failed with error 0x80070005. Method CommenceEnforcement failed with error code 80070005 ++++++ Failed to enforce app. Error 0x80070005. ++++++ CMTrace Error Lookup reported ‘Access denied’ 0x87d01106 Invalid executable file C:\Windows\msiexec.exe CMsiHandler::EnforceApp failed (0x87d01106). AppProvider::EnforceApp - Failed to invoke EnforceApp on Application handler(0x87d01106). CommenceEnforcement failed with error 0x87d01106. Method CommenceEnforcement failed with error code 87D01106 ++++++ Failed to enforce app. Error 0x87d01106. ++++++ CMTrace Error Lookup reported Failed to verify the executable file is valid or to construct the associated command line. Source: Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager Interestingly testing revealed that .msi applications, configuration items aka compliance and WDAC policy were affected with .exe deployments remaining unaffected. Executing the install string from the administrator account also worked. Somewhat concerning as SCCM deployments execute as System, the highest privilege possible, yet all application installs failed across the entire domain. At this point, Google is normally your friend..... but the results suggested PowerShell, and the wrong user context, as it's a msi issue, these suggestions were not helpful. Clearly, I'm asking the wrong question...... When in doubt or.... stuck, trawl the eventlogs, the SCCM logs weren't going to give up anything further. Fortunately, in fairly short order the following errors were located in the Windows Defender log. Microsoft Defender Exploit Guard has blocked an operation that is not allowed by your IT administrator. For more information please contact your IT administrator. ID: D1E49AAC-8F56-4280-B9BA-993A6D77406C Detection time: 2023-02-23T21:03:46.265Z User: NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM Path: C:\Windows\System32\msiexec.exe Process Name: C:\Windows\System32\wbem\WmiPrvSE.exe Target Commandline: "C:\Windows\system32\msiexec.exe" /i "LAPS.x64.msi" /q /qn Parent Commandline: C:\Windows\system32\wbem\wmiprvse.exe -Embedding Involved File: Inheritance Flags: 0x00000000 Security intelligence Version: 1.383.518.0 Engine Version: 1.1.20000.2 Product Version: 4.18.2301.6 Now I know the correct question to ask Google 'D1E49AAC-8F56-4280-B9BA-993A6D77406C', with Attack Surface Reduction (ASR) being the culprit. The following is an extract from the Microsoft page: 'Block process creations originating from PSExec and WMI commands D1E49AAC-8F56-4280-B9BA-993A6D77406C Block process creations originating from PSExec and WMI commands This rule blocks processes created through PsExec and WMI from running. Both PsExec and WMI can remotely execute code. There's a risk of malware abusing the functionality of PsExec and WMI for command and control purposes, or to spread infection throughout an organization's network. Warning Only use this rule if you're managing your devices with Intune or another MDM solution. This rule is incompatible with management through Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager because this rule blocks WMI commands the Configuration Manager client uses to function correctly. There is no fix, only a workaround, involving updating the ASR setting Block Mode to Audit Mode in Group Policy. Open GPO Management and locate the ASR rules under Windows Components/Microsoft Defender Antivirus/Microsoft Defender Exploit Guard/Attack Surface Reduction. Open the 'Configure Attack Surface Reduction Rules'. Update value name 'D1E49AAC-8F56-4280-B9BA-993A6D77406C' from 1 to 2. Gpupdate /force to refresh the GPO's on the client, then check the eventlog for 5007 recording the change from Block to Audit Mode. Test an SCCM Application deployment to confirm the fix. One final check of the event log confirming event id 1122 for the deployed application.

  • Securing Weak File, Folder and Registry Hive Permissions.

    This blog will explore how threat actors aka hackers are able to privesc when a weak file, directory or registry permissions are available. Often installed programs disable directory inheritance and configure excessive permissions to user accounts. Locating these misconfigurations will often go unnoticed as it requires validating swaths of file, directory and registry hive permissions. Luckily I've a couple of scripts that assist in both reporting vulnerabilities and resetting the correct permissions. But first the problem at hand..... The Risks Weak file, directory and registry permissions are often significant factors in threat actors being able to break out and privesc. If the aforementioned permissions are not set properly, it can give threat actors the opportunity to gain access to sensitive files or modify existing files. Weak permissions allow the user to write and execute programs in the directory or redirect application paths set in the registry to another location permitting the user to execute their own malicious programs. This can be used to gain access to privileged information or to modify existing programs or files. In addition to writing and executing programs, weak directory permissions can also allow the user to modify the permissions of existing files. This can be used to modify or delete existing files, or to create new files with malicious code. Finally, weak permissions can also allow hackers to gain access to the system by exploiting vulnerabilities in the operating system or the applications installed on the system. What to do.... Validating permissions throughout the Operating System is slow and laborious when done manually and after finding some truly awful permissions and realising the importance of the task at hand I started developing a validation and pentest script. It's available online and downloadable from github, all referenced links are at the bottom of the page. Download the Security Report script and review it prior to running with admin privileges. The report outputs in HTML and checks for privesc, breakouts and misconfigurations. If there are file, directory or registry permission weaknesses found in the Security Report then download and run 'Fix for Weak Permissions' PowerShell script. As always test and review the script before executing. The script validates the following location for any User or Authenticated Users that are able to modify or above. C:\ "C:\PerfLogs\" "C:\Program Files"\ "C:\Program Files (x86)\" "C:\Windows\" 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\' 'HKLM:\Software\' The Scripts The Security Report Support Page The Security Report Script Fix for Weak Permissions

  • Living off the Land

    Living off the land is a technique used by attackers to compromise IT systems without using malicious software. Instead, they use legitimate but vulnerable applications and services to gain access to a system and carry out their malicious activities. This approach can be incredibly successful and difficult to detect, as attackers do not have to introduce any malicious files or code into the system. Living off the land entails attackers finding out what programs are running on the target system and then exploiting known vulnerabilities in those applications. The goal is to gain access to the system and use it for malicious purposes, such as stealing data or launching a denial-of-service attack. Attackers can use several methods to gain access to the system, including exploiting vulnerable software, using unsecured services, or taking advantage of weak or default passwords. One of the main advantages of living off the land is that it is difficult to detect. Since the attacker is not introducing any malicious code or files into the system, there are often no tell-tale signs that an attack is taking place. It is only when the attacker’s activities are discovered that the attack can be identified. Organizations should be aware of the risks posed by living off the land attacks. They should perform regular security audits to ensure that their systems are up to date and that all applications and services are properly secured. It is also a good idea to change passwords regularly and to monitor for suspicious activity. In addition, organizations should ensure that they have an incident response plan in place, in case a living off the land attack is detected. Living off the land attacks can be highly effective and difficult to detect, but organizations can take steps to protect themselves from these threats. Living off the land attacks can be prevented by implementing robust security policies, awareness training for all users, monitoring of systems and user activity, and using secure protocols and encryption. Additionally, organizations should regularly review their security posture and make security improvements when needed. This could include regularly patching or updating systems, using application whitelisting, and implementing firewalls and other security measures. Additionally, businesses should keep their data and systems secure by using strong passwords, two-factor authentication, and other authentication protocols. Authored by ChatGPT

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